Iron Melting 201


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This course provides detailed coverage of iron melting and related processes. Course topics include: charge materials selection; cost, value, and risk; electric and cupola melting procedures; the relationship between molten metal and refractory lining; sampling and checks to determine iron quality; common effects of key major element adjustments; iron refining technology/treatment practices and safety procedures.

This course includes a comprehensive overview of electric and cupola melting of gray and ductile irons, an understanding of metallurgical and operational factors affecting the outcome of melting in production, discussions on the influence of variables in cast iron production and an understanding of why certain cast iron complexities interfere with the intended result. The student will choose to attend either electric furnace charge materials and melting process, or cupola charge and melting process sessions.

Learning outcomes

Class participants will learn to:

  • Identify the differences between alternate scrap types and key furnace additions.
  • Calculate a charge mix.
  • Identify which elements need to be controlled and explain the need to adjust these elements in gray and ductile cast iron.
  • Measure the efficiency of element recovery in iron melting processes.
  • Describe the melting practices and related refining technologies for cast iron.
  • Describe the key steps in converting solid charge materials to castable molten iron.
  • Identify and explain the role of slag and slag removal.
  • Describe sampling/test methods for determining molten iron quality.
  • Apply safety procedures to the daily work environment for a metalcasting facility melt deck.
  • Identify how channel holding furnaces can be utilized in both electric and cupola melting.

Course Length

2.0 days

CEU Units

1.20 CEU

Course outline

Module 1: Introduction
Module 2: Course Overview

•    Melting, as It Affects the Final Cast Product
•    Iron Melt Transfer Overview

Module 3: Converting Charge Materials to Molten Iron

•    Safety Considerations
•    Handling and Preparation of Charge Materials
•    Furnace Charging of Metallics

Module 4: Slagging, Sampling Procedures, and Melt Treatments

•    Understanding Slag Formation
•    Molten Base Iron Quality Tests
•    Melt Treatments
•    Casting Quality Tests

Module 5A: Electric Furnace Charge Materials and Melting Process

•    Electric Melting Methods
•    Metallic Charge Materials
•    Induction Furnace Operations
•    Refractories and Relining
•    Process Concerns

Module 5B: Cupola Charge and Melting Process

•    Cupola Description
•    Metallic Charge Materials
•    Cupola Furnace Operations
•    Refractories and Relining
•    Process Concerns

Module 6: Molten Metal Handling Practices

•    Iron Transfer and Temperature Loss
•    Alloy Additions and Carbon Raisers
•    Pouring into Molds

Module 7: Channel Furnace Holding and Automatic Pouring Operations

•    Channel Holding and Autopour/Pressure Pour Operations
•    Practical Process Concerns

Module 8: Conclusion