Casting Defect Analysis


"Very good and comprehensive course. I wish I would have taken the class sooner." 


The intention of this course is for participants to become proficient in applying a 10-step procedure to analyze and reduce metalcasting defects by correctly identifying their root causes and determining the appropriate corrective actions. This course is applicable to sand molding processes (green, nobake, coldbox, shell).

To determine the true root cause of a casting defect, and select the proper corrective action, a systematic evaluation method must be applied. Implementing the wrong solution can cost the foundry in terms of runtime, cost, waste, safety, reduced return on investment or profit, sales and expertise. Learning a systematic procedure for root cause identification supports the business goal of designing, producing, and selling quality castings in a timely manner in a safe environment for a profit.

Learning outcomes

Class participants will learn to:

  • Name the four most common casting defects and identify the causes and potential solutions for each.
  • Apply a 10-step procedure to correctly identify actual casting defects (in samples) and their root causes, and determine appropriate corrective actions and solutions using the AFS-CIATF “International Atlas of Casting Defects” and the three AFS Casting Defects handbooks.

Course Length

2.0 days

CEU Units

1.10 CEU

Course outline

Module 1: Introduction
Module 2: Root Cause Analysis Overview

•    Metalcasting Experience Poll
•    Skill Level Poll
•    10-Step Procedure Introduction
•    Business Goal

Module 3: Casting Defects Overview

•    Benefits to Root Cause Analysis
•    Setting Scrap Rates
•    Common Casting Defects

Module 4: Demonstration of a Casting Defect Analysis

•    Review of the 10-Step Procedure
•    The Problem Statement (Step 1)
•    Collect Process Data (Step 2)
•    Evaluate Process Data (Step 3)
•    Classify and Identify (Step 4)
•    Choose Corrective Action Plan (Step 5)
•    Run Corrective Action Trial (Step 6)
•    Evaluate Corrective Action Trial (Step 7)
•    Test in Production, Evaluate Production Run, and Solve (Steps 8 – 10)

Module 5: Common Defects Caused from Sand

•    Defining a Sand Defect
•    What Do We Know?
•    Sand Expansion Defects
•    Adhering Sand Defects
•    Sand Strength Defects

Module 6: Common Defects Caused from Oxides

•    Defining an Oxide Defect
•    What Do We Know?
•    Ferrous Oxide Defects
•    Nonferrous Oxide Defects

Module 7: Group Problem Solving
Module 8: Common Defects Caused from Gas

•    Defining a Gas Defect
•    What Do We Know?
•    Soluble Gas Defects
•    Aspirated Gas Defects
•    Reactive Gas Defects

Module 9: Common Defects Caused from Shrink

•    Defining a Shrink Defect
•    What Do We Know?
•    Macro Shrinkage Defects
•    Micro Shrinkage Defects
•    Centerline Shrinkage Defects
•    Depression Shrinkage Defects
•    Gating and Feeding Considerations

Module 10: Group Problem Solving
Module 11: Conclusion