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Made in the USA

A new presidential administration has taken office, and it has made some appealing promises to bring manufacturing back to the U.S. Whether the new administration can deliver on these promises remains to be seen, but it may be a good time to review government standards for the phrases “Made in the USA” and “Made in America.” Often, these promotional claims are made to imply quality and/or inspire purchases based on patriotism or a desire to help American-owned businesses. As these factors can be quite persuasive, and the U.S. government has an interest in prohibiting false advertising, the qualifications for a promotional phrase such as Made in the USA is regulated under the auspices of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). You might be curious as to how the FTC defines Made in the USA and how that affects metalcasters and their suppliers.

The FTC’s Made in the USA policy applies to all products advertised or sold in the U.S., except for products specifically subject to country of origin labeling by other laws. Two examples of these other laws include the American Automobile Labeling Act and the Buy American Act.  The American Automobile Labeling Act requires each automobile manufactured on or after October 1, 1994, for sale in the U.S. bear a label disclosing where the car was assembled, the percentage of equipment that originated in the U.S. and Canada, and the country of origin of the engine and transmission. The Buy American Act requires that a product be manufactured in the U.S. of more than 50% U.S. parts to be considered Made in the USA for government procurement purposes. There is no other law that requires most other product sold in the U.S. to be marked or labeled Made in the USA or have any other disclosure about their amount of U.S. content.  However, manufacturers and marketers who choose to make claims about the amount of American content in their products must comply with the FTC’s Made in the USA policy.

The enforcement policy of the FTC applies to U.S. origin claims appearing on products and labeling, advertising and other promotional materials. It also applies to all other forms of marketing, including marketing through digital or electronic means, such as the internet or e-mail. The Made in the USA claim can be express or implied. For example, express claims can include “Made in USA,” “Our products are American-made,” and “USA.”  Examples of implied claims can include indications such as “True American quality.”  In cases of implied claims, the FTC will focus on the overall impression of the advertising, label, or promotional material. American symbols or geographic references may convey a claim of U.S. origin either by themselves or in conjunction with other phrases or images. An American brand name or trademark by itself is not likely to be considered a U.S. origin claim.

American origin claims can be unqualified or qualified. Claims of American origin made without any qualification must be “all or virtually all” made in the U.S., which includes all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories and possessions. This leads to the obvious question, “How is ‘all or virtually all’ actually interpreted by the FTC?” This phrase has been interpreted to mean that all significant parts and processing that go into the product must be of U.S. origin. That is, the product should contain no—or negligible—foreign content. This may seem to be open to interpretation, but the FTC has been rather reasonable in its explanations regarding “negligible foreign content” and several factors are used in assessing the product’s manufacturing process. Primarily, the product’s final assembly or processing must occur in the U.S. Other factors include:  how much of the product’s total manufacturing costs can be assigned to U.S. parts and processing and how far removed any foreign content is from the finished product. For example, if a foundry supplier produces a core machine in Oklahoma and uses blow tubes from a foreign manufacturer, then an unqualified Made in the USA claim is not likely found to be deceptive because the blow tubes make up a negligible portion of the product’s total manufacturing costs and are less than significant parts of the final product.

If you feel your castings or casting supplies do not meet the standard for an unqualified claim such as Made in the USA, qualified claims are also accepted by the FTC. Qualified Made in the USA claims describe the extent, amount or type of a product’s domestic content or processing. In essence, they indicate the product is mostly American, but isn’t entirely of domestic origin. Some examples may include: “60% U.S. content,” “Made in USA of U.S. and imported parts,” or “Molding machine assembled in USA from Chinese frame and other foreign parts.”

The FTC is charged with preventing deception and unfairness in the marketplace. The FTC has the power to bring law enforcement actions against false or misleading claims that a product is of U.S. origin.  Should you have further questions regarding the use of Made in the USA claims, please consult your business attorney.  

Click here to see this story as it appears in the May/June 2017 issue of MCDP


Use Your Resources

In so many stories we write about in Metal Casting Design & Purchasing, the spark to convert a component or assembly into a cast part started with a visit from a metal casting supplier. This makes sense. As much as you know about your part’s function, requirements and application, the metal caster understands the capabilities and advantages of casting and how to achieve them.

My husband and I are in the process of remodeling our kitchen. We both know how we want the kitchen to look and function for our needs as a family. But neither of us are handy or skilled in design, so we worked with a contractor who showed us how to achieve our needs and even introduced ways to improve function that we hadn’t even thought about.

You probably know some parts in your shop would be more cost-effective if produced in a different way, but have little time to explore what process to use and how to adjust the design or calculate the savings. This is where the metal caster—your own kitchen contractor—comes in to help.

As helpful as a list of signs might be, the most important resource for converting a part to metalcasting is a metal casting supplier. Many deal with changing designs from assemblies to single cast parts regularly.

This type of information is the cornerstone of why the magazine exists.  Our mission is to share ways to make the metalcasting process more accessible and help you weigh when it is the right manufacturing method (or when it is not). This is reflected in our name Metal Casting Design & Purchasing.

Our cover has a new look this issue. In order to better establish our goal of providing content to help designers and purchasers create and source cast metal components, we have updated our logo to emphasize this. It is a reminder to our readers, and us, as editors, that YOU are our audience and our content should always be chosen with the intent of helping you do your job well. 

Thank you for your readership, and as always, please share your stories and comments.

Click here to see this story as it appears in MCDP.


What's in a Number?

The January/February issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing is one of my favorites of the year because it lays out the statistics of the current industry and looks at what we can expect for the coming years.

The annual World Census of Global Casting Production (p. 22) charts the trends in production and sales of major metalcasting nations, the U.S. census (p. 36) breaks down the types of plants and capabilities at home, and the U.S. metalcasting forecast (p. 27) shares how the industries that use castings might be faring in the future.

It’s a lot of numbers, and for someone who would go home and do pages of long division on her own in grade school, they are fun to explore and stack this way and that to see what kind of story it tells us.

This year, the tale that interested me most, although it was nothing new, was the extent of markets in which castings are used. In our forecast, we share data for the main industries for each metal, but in the full forecast, markets for iron, steel, aluminum and the other alloys go far beyond the four or five listed. There is a NAICS code for the totalizing fluid meter and counting device market, and it buys castings. Office furniture is a metalcasting market, so is electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus manufacturing. You, the readers of this magazine, are a collective group of makers that keep our society rolling in an expanding network of industry.

The variety of markets that metalcasters serve is also notable. Unless it is a captive plant, rarely is a foundry tied to a single industry. The chart on p. 31 of the U.S. census shows this breadth of markets. Metalcasting businesses serve niches. This makes them flexible to meet new customer needs, apply new developments, or, as in the case of Goldens’ Foundry and Machine Co. (p. 17), create their own product.

Enjoy exploring the numbers and stories in this issue, and as always, I invite you to share your thoughts or stories of what you are making with metal castings.

Click here to see this story as it appears in MCDP.


Manage Your Time

Time management is one of the biggest issues facing employees and employers today. Whether it’s because of a growing list of tasks, increasingly complicated duties, non-work problems that need to be taken care of, or just an inability to get off Twitter or Facebook during business hours, it feels like managing those precious minutes gets harder by the month for anybody who has even a modicum of responsibility during work.

In his book “Procrastinate on Purpose: 5 Permissions to Multiply Your Time,” New York Times bestselling author Rory Vaden writes knowingly and seems all too familiar with time crunches. He spells out in plain language ways to make your time matter more, and how not to waste it with surprisingly simple and intuitive ideas.

(Not that it matters, but the title of the book is ironic and catchy. It’s not iconic like “Steal This Book,” but certainly memorable.)

To get his points across to the reader, Vaden breaks up his advice into five “permissions” on what he calls a “Focus Funnel.” They are:
• Eliminate: The Permission to Ignore.
• Automate: The Permission to Invest.
• Delegate: The Permission of Imperfect.
• Procrastinate: The Permission of Incomplete.
• Concentrate: The Permission to Protect.

All of these ideas have value and Vaden gets them across impressively efficiently. The part that had the most relevance for me (of course, your mileage may vary) was on concentration. I have a habit of, well, wasting time until I need to get on deadline and have to accomplish something. Sometimes that means I’m rushing a lot more than I should be. And even though I end up getting things done, it’s more stressful than necessary.

It turns out, this is healthy, albeit in the reverse. In the chapter that focuses on this topic, Vaden goes into detail about working double-time at the start of a task when necessary, so you can have free time later. He also effectively mentioned farmers and how they harvest when they have to harvest, that at times there’s nothing they can do to avoid it and how it has to be a priority for them.

(Trust me, this makes sense in the context of the book.)

In general, “Procrastinate on Purpose: 5 Permissions to Multiply Your Time” is a valuable book for any professional who struggles with managing their precious minutes. I certainly fall into that category and will take many of the lessons with me as I continue my writing. And maybe I’ll be more efficient on my next deadline.  


New Normals. Better Futures

In the late 1990s, dot-com companies that had yet to generate a profit were trading at astronomical valuations. Traditional measures like price-to-earning ratios, we were told, were obsolete in an era when eyeballs and clicks were the metrics du jour. It didn’t take long, though, for the market to crash. It turned out that the longstanding investment rules developed by the likes of Benjamin Graham and Phillip Fisher were timeless and trusty, not outdated and crusty.

Over the past seven years, there has been another new normal. Over that time, the U.S. has failed to enjoy even a single year of 3% economic growth. Not surprisingly, this lackluster performance has led to diminished economic opportunity and reduced tax revenues. Even as the unemployment rate gradually inched back to 4.9 percent, the numbers of people who dropped out of the workforce has been staggering.

This has been the slowest economic recovery over the last 75 years. Some people have bought into the argument that we are destined to perpetual growth rates of 1 to 2 percent. Yet, this seeming new normal need not be a permanent reality. With the right public policies, robust growth is again possible. With that growth would come more demand for goods and services, better opportunities for entrepreneurs, and more jobs. In a phrase, a better future.

For buyers and designers of castings, the American Foundry Society plays a key role in assuring a better future. AFS is waging an aggressive government advocacy program that advances policies conducive to economic growth and opposes unnecessarily burdensome regulations. That work helps to control non-production costs that would otherwise have to be added on to the price of castings. Corporate memberships in AFS—by metalcasters, suppliers, and casting purchasers—make this advocacy work possible.

On the workforce development front, many OEMs and other casting buyers take advantage of AFS classroom courses. A total of 38 classes have been redesigned over the last several years. Moreover, in July 2016, the society introduced a series of e-learning modules on key casting-related topics, with many more still to come. This makes professional training more affordable and convenient than ever.

AFS is also playing a leading role in technology development and transfer, which positions the casting industry to meet the ever-evolving technology needs of its customers for many years to come.

This issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing features two articles on designing and cost estimating for additive manufacturing, plus a look at the steel lost foam and iron pipe markets. Finally, a look at casting technology development on page 34 illustrates how metalcasters use engineering and knowledge to eliminate defects and provide quality castings to their customers. All of these contribute to a better future for casting purchasers.

Click here to see this story as it appears in MCDP.


Leading Where?

In the book “You Don’t Need a Title to be a Leader,” author Mark Sanborn tries to lay out how anybody in any company can be a leader, regardless of shiny title, fancy business card or even a large salary. He does this by not following a single narrative, but brief vignette after brief vignette after brief vignette after...

Well, you get the point.

This isn’t really a knock against Sanborn, but his writing style in this very brief book of 102 pages didn’t help me to see what he was trying to get across. As I read this book, I kept waiting for repeated extended narratives (even one that would be a few pages), where I could see how somebody took some of the lessons in this book and improved their career and also the life of the business where they work. At least for me, that would give me time to see some parallels in my life and career, and perhaps see how they could be applied to make things even better for myself and my employers.

There are a couple very strong examples of this, and I won’t ruin them, but a few more would have been helpful for the reader.

That said, there are reasons to pick up this book.

Though it didn’t do much for me, Sanborn’s writing style could be helpful if you’re not looking for one story but numerous small snippets and examples of lessons. He breaks down his theory into “six principles of leadership” and then pings rapid-fire stories at the reader one after another.

Some valuable lessons can be learned in the pages of this book. Perhaps the most important is a very early passage in the book. It reads “It doesn’t matter what your position is, or how long you’ve worked at your job, whether you help to run your family, a PTA committee, or a Fortune 500 company. Anyone at any level can learn to be a leader and help to shape or influence the world around them.”

That’s pretty good, and something every employee of every company should take to heart. The six principles also provide value and the snippets do bring strong advice and tips. One that is especially strong is the chapter on the power of persuasive communication. During the nine-page section, Sanborn highlights how to communicate effectively, and stresses the importance of word selection.

In the end, there is a value to reading this book. Leadership is a tricky thing to define. It’s not tangible, and probably falls into the “you know it when you see it” category, and Sanborn does go a long way in illuminating some very helpful and important tactics. They are tactics that may seem obvious but aren’t, and they are tactics that are surprisingly easy to implement.


Finding the Fun

Each October the last few years, our office has hosted an event for National Manufacturing Day activities.

Manufacturing Day’s goal is to celebrate careers in manufacturing and share with the community and students how these industries support our economy. It’s a chance for companies to share what they do with the public. Your organization might even hold an event. We host an open house with a hands-on metalcasting demonstration.

Man, it is fun.

In your jobs and industries, the pressure is on to deliver safe, economic, and attractive parts, and it may not feel like any fun much of the time. Manufacturing Day is the chance to take a break from the deadlines and show others what you thought was so much fun about manufacturing and engineering in the first place.

Designing something, making a part that has a purpose in the world, is gratifying. The smiles on grade-school kids’ faces after pouring their first small casting is proof of that.

Like most issues of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing, this one features a wide range of cast parts that met deadlines, reduced cost and were a little fun, too. On page 22, you can read about a niche industry any sports fan will enjoy—cast iron seat components for ballparks and stadiums. Our case study on an electronics enclosure on page 32 shows how creative engineering can achieve results when the wiggle-room for design changes is slim. Perhaps most fun of all, our Shakeout on page 56 takes us to the final frontier.

Once again, I’m looking forward to our Manufacturing Day open house this October. I enjoy seeing the community and students learn and be excited about manufacturing and engineering.

Even more, I like watching those from the industry explain metalcasting and the opportunities it offers as a career and a manufacturing method.

If you are looking for an audience to share what your company is making or how you are utilizing castings in your projects, you’ve found the place. Not all projects are headaches—let us know what’s got you smiling.

Click here to see this story as it appears in MCDP


Transforming Energy Into Profit

Energy might not be a tangible thing, but it can be felt throughout a person’s life. It certainly can be felt in a business, and sometimes it needs to be turned around.

Energy Leadership: Transforming Your Workplace and Your Life from the Core by Bruce D. Schneider, a life coach, tells the story of when he is brought in to help a failing company turn around. Bruce quickly notices that Richard, the company’s owner, is setting a downcast and negative tone for his employees.

The company, once thriving, is beset by office politics, a losing trajectory and looks headed for the end unless drastic action is taken.

Schneider writes about recognizing seven different energy levels and how some leaders create positive energy and how some create negative energy. Both permeate through a business and can have major impacts.

I won’t spoil what those seven different energy levels are or how they can be improved or changed, but this is a story that should resonate for anybody who’s worked in an office. The characters are well-sketched and each one presents different challenges for Richard as he tries, with Bruce’s prodding, to get them in line and save the business.

The story itself is well-written. Though the ending is telegraphed early in the book, it’s an enjoyable journey to see how the company reached its destination. Not to sound cliche but there are twists and turns and the characters get more and more interesting as the story unfolds. You begin to understand how the characters became what they are and, even though they exhibit some onerous behavior, you begin to cheer for them as they move back into being team players and productive parts of a cohesive unit.

As you might have guessed by now, this book is not about a metalcasting facility and does not have many obvious ties to the industry.

But that doesn’t mean it isn’t relevant to metalcasting.

The principles of a healthy business and healthy energy are universal. It’s hard to be successful and profitable if nobody’s working together, and if they have to try it becomes a challenge. Leaders, whether in the boardroom, the office or on the floor set the tone for their employees. That’s true in any industry.

Energy Leadership: Transforming Your Workplace and Your Life from the Core is not a necessary read, but if you feel like something’s off with your corporate culture, it will help you find solutions and keep you entertained.


Thank You, Goodbye & Good Luck

It is with a heavy heart that I pen this last editorial for Metal Casting Design & Purchasing. By the time you read this column, I will have left the magazine to pursue a new career.  After 19 years in metalcasting, a new challenge awaits me.

So let me start by thanking you, our loyal readers of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing.  I was lucky enough to be part of the team that started this magazine in 1999 (it was titled Engineered Casting Solutions back then). Our focus was serving a niche—buyers and designers of metal castings—that needed information on how to better source and design engineered metal components.

Through the years, we have grown our qualified circulation tremendously and built a name for ourselves by being a resource to you. You have attended our summits and trade shows, you have participated in our casting competition, and you have submitted articles and ideas to help educate your peers. You have helped to build a community of buyers and designers looking to support a casting supply chain. That was our dream when we started the magazine and you are helping us fulfill that dream.

Goodbyes are always difficult.  We all invest sweat equity in our professions. But I can leave knowing the casting supply chain in North America is better than when we started this magazine.  There is greater communication, an increase in education and knowledge exchange, and a stronger appreciation for local sourcing.  The basic foundation of a magazine is the strength of the information it shares, and Metal Casting Design & Purchasing shines in that exchange.

But the advancement of the supply chain is not done.  Everyone is always looking to do things better, faster and stronger.  Additive manufacturing is changing the way all manufacturing conducts business.  Metalcasting has been one of the early and significant adopters of this technology from its first appearances in the 1990s to its full development today. New technologies and processes await to steal the headlines as the wave of the future.

To those of you battling in the trenches every day, I truly wish you good luck. Manufacturing is the backbone of our economy and our society. The next generation is beginning to understand that fact. And metal castings serve as the foundation of most manufacturing.

Be proud of who you are and what you accomplish every day. Creating and building incredible machinery is an awesome accomplishment.

Thank you, goodbye and good luck.

Click Here to see this article as it appears in Metal Casting Design & Purchasing


Enhancing My Perspective

Standing on the CastExpo exhibition floor last month, I made a 360-degree turn to see all the sights before my eyes. The shiny equipment.  The bright lights. The networking. The potential for the future.

The best of metalcasting was on display at the once-every-three-year showcase, and I was in awe. To understand where this industry was in 2009-10, to see where it is today and to think where it is going is amazing. Many had expected North American metalcasting to go the way of the dinosaurs. Instead, it is now a beacon of success the rest of the world points to.

Yes, we have significant challenges:
•    Critical markets like agriculture, energy and mining are significantly down.
•    Finding skilled labor (or any labor at all)
is difficult.
•    You, as casting buyers, continue to demand more and want to pay less.
•    Today’s regulatory environment is stifling to manufacturing.

But look at just a few of the headlines we have run in the magazine in the last year:
•    Waupaca Unveils New Growth Strategy
•    Linamar, GF Automotive Choose North Carolina for New Operations
•    Fritz Winter to Build Casting Facility in Kentucky
•    Sahkti Breaks Ground on Aluminum Casting Facility in Detroit
•    Kamtek to Invest in New Diecasting Facility in Alabama
•    Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway Purchases Precision Castparts

Hopefully, these headlines and the other regularly occurring positive news can finally put to rest the misnomer that new casting facilities and expansion aren’t happening in the U.S. Couple this investment with the tremendous expansion and adoption of additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping that is occurring, and you have an industry poised to handle the future. When the down markets return to some normalcy, watch out for North American metalcasting.

While my messages in this editorial space tend to cheerlead the positive, I am calling it like I see it. In your production-driven world, you must focus on finding the proper supplier for a family of parts or improving the performance of a single aluminum component. My responsibility is to scream from the mountaintops a 10,000-ft-view that examines the trends in the industry.

I gained some additional perspective on the state of metalcasting while on the CastExpo show floor. Hopefully, you have as well.

(Click Here to see this story as it appears in the May/June issue of Metal Casting Design & Purchasing.)


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